In essence, Neighborhood Watch is a crime prevention program that stresses education and common sense (Stegenga 2000). It teaches citizens how to help themselves by identifying and reporting suspicious activity in their neighborhoods. In addition, it provides citizens with the opportunity to make their neighborhoods safer and improve the quality of life.
Neighborhood Watch groups typically focus on observation and awareness as a means of preventing crime and employ strategies that range from simply promoting social interaction and "watching out for each other" to active patrols by groups of citizens (Yin, et al., 1976).
Most neighborhood crime prevention groups are organized around a block or a neighborhood and are started with assistance from a law enforcement agency. Volunteers who donate their time and resources are typically at the center of such programs, since many do not have a formal budget or source of funding. One study (Garofalo and McLeod, 1988) found that most Neighborhood Watches were located in areas that contained high percentages of single-family homes, little or no commercial establishments, and residents who had lived at their current address for more than five years. This study also found that most of the programs used street signs to show the presence of the program to potentially deter any would-be criminals.
All Neighborhood Watches share one foundational idea: that bringing community members together to reestablish control of their neighborhoods promotes an increased quality of life and reduces the crime rate in that area. As Rosenbaum (1988) put it ". . . if social disorganization is the problem and if traditional agents of social control no longer are performing adequately, we need to find alternative ways to strengthen informal social control and to restore a 'sense of neighborhood'". That's precisely what Neighborhood Watch strives to do. In fact, from the earliest attempts to deal with the neighborhood structure as it relates to crime (through the Chicago Area Project of the early 1900s), to modern attempts at neighborhood crime prevention, collective action by residents has proved one of the most effective strategies.
The reason for this effectiveness is rather simple: Involving community members in watch programs decreases opportunities for criminals to commit crime rather than attempting to change their behavior or motivation.
Today's Neighborhood Watch Program is an effective means of crime control and neighborhood cohesiveness. While not all of the programs in place today go by the same name, they all accomplish the same goal: to bring community members together to fight crime. As Minor aptly wrote, "Neighborhood is the key to maintaining successful relationships."
In 1981, national data showed that 12 percent of the population was involved in some type of neighborhood watch group (O'Keefe and Mendelsohn, 1984). By 1988, it was estimated that between seven and 20 percent of residents of U.S. cities were involved in such activities (Rosenbaum, 1988). A national study (Whitaker, 1986) showed that 38 percent of households in neighborhoods that had a Neighborhood Watch program participated in the program. This study concluded that urban areas were more likely to have programs than suburban or rural areas, but that people living in the latter were likely to be involved in a program if one was organized.
While consistencies in the presence of Neighborhood Watch programs based on location were identified, it was also determined that these programs varied in their organizational structure and agendas (DuBow, McCabe, and Kaplan, 1979). However, in spite of these differences, it was determined that the programs generally followed one or both of two approaches: "opportunity reduction" or "social problems."
Whereas the "opportunity reduction" approach focuses on crime reduction through observation to restore informal control and a sense of "neighborhood" (Rosenbaum 1988), the "social problems" approach typically revolves around addressing certain issues in the neighborhood that may be linked with higher levels of crime (Podolefsky and DuBow, 1981). To address these social problems, programs that target youth, such as athletic activities, drug programs, tutoring, etc., are often offered. The main goal of these programs is to provide young people with alternative and positive activities that not only occupy their time, but also provide them with opportunities to increase their skills and their self-image (Bennett and Lavrakas, 1988)
Starting and Maintaining a Neighborhood Watch
As is often the case, communities that need Neighborhood Watch programs the most are the ones that find it the hardest to keep them. This is particularly the case with lower income neighborhoods. Typically, the adults in these neighborhoods work multiple jobs with odd hours, making it difficult to schedule meetings and organize events. This environment also makes it challenging for neighbors to get to know and care about one in a way that would encourage them to watch out for each another.
So what does it take to start and maintain an effective Neighborhood Watch Program? According to one researcher (Baker 1999), there are five fundamental steps that make this possible:
Even with all of these steps in place, success does not happen overnight. Creating truly effective Neighborhood Watch programs takes patience, planning, and enthusiasm. Since studies show that once a Neighborhood Watch program deteriorates, criminals notice and quickly resume illegal activities, there is certainly motivation to strive towards success.